Coastal adaptation is one of the most fundamental design challenges of our time. Already, over 40 percent of the world’s population lives within a hundred kilometers of coastlines, including three-quarters of all major cities. Depending on location, researchers have projected that increased global temperatures can result in rising sea levels anywhere: from sixty centimeters to two meters by the end of the century. In addition to rising sea levels and other effects of climate change, coastal areas are confronted with challenges of ongoing population growth, food insecurity, environmental decline, and geopolitical conflict.
Keywords: North America, landscape, urbanism and planning, ethics, environmental systems.